Serious Topics Political and Economic Discussion Forums.. Javascript must be enabled to use this site.
Password ReminderLoginRegister  
Topics
Register
Login
Archives

Middle Eastern Political Economy



Note that various articles on the housing markets of the UK, USA and Australia are recorded at House Price Crash Discussion Forums
Please register or login to post.
View Topic
Search text   Date  

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  

PosterMessage
little c
 20 Oct '17  03:28 : 0 recs : edited 1 time : last edit 20 Oct '17  03:29

Good morning to everyone living in the Middle East and beyond. I trust that all is well with all of you this Friday morning in October 2017. The United States says the militant Islamist movement Hamas must lay down its weapons if it is to play a part in a new Palestinian government. Hamas, which dominates the Gaza Strip, and the rival Fatah faction recently agreed to end years of bitter division. US special envoy Jason Greenblatt said any Palestinian unity administration would need to recognise the State of Israel and disarm "terrorists".

A Hamas official described the US demand as "blatant interference". Israel - which like the US considers Hamas a terrorist organisation - has said it will not deal with a Palestinian government that "relies on Hamas". Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank have been ruled separately since deadly clashes between Hamas and Fatah broke out in 2007.

Hamas won parliamentary elections in the occupied territories the previous year, and reinforced its power in Gaza after ousting Fatah from the enclave. Last Thursday, the factions agreed that administrative control of Gaza, including the Rafah border crossing, would be handed to the Fatah-led Palestinian Authority (PA) by 1 December.

PA officials said there were no plans to appoint Hamas members to the government. About 3,000 Fatah security personnel will also join Gaza's police force, but there is no agreement on yet on the role of Hamas' 25,000-strong armed wing. In a statement issued on Thursday, Mr Greenblatt said it was essential that the PA was able to "assume full, genuine, and unhindered civil and security responsibilities in Gaza" and that the humanitarian situation there was improved.

Jason Greenblatt said the PA had to assume full civil and security responsibilities in Gaza. He also stressed that "any Palestinian government must unambiguously and explicitly commit to non-violence, recognise the State of Israel, accept previous agreements and obligations between the parties - including to disarm terrorists - and commit to peaceful negotiations"."If Hamas is to play any role in a Palestinian government, it must accept these basic requirements," the envoy added.
A senior Hamas official immediately rejected the US demands.

"This is blatant interference in Palestinian affairs because it is the right of our people to choose its government according to their supreme strategic interests," Bassem Naim told AFP news agency. Mr Naim said the US had come under pressure from Israeli Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, who on Tuesday insisted he would "not conduct diplomatic negotiations with a Palestinian government that relies on Hamas" unless the following conditions were met:

Hamas recognises Israel, "desists from terrorism" and disarms. The bodies of Israeli soldiers and civilians held by Hamas are returned. The PA exercises full security control in Gaza. The PA continues to act against Hamas "terror infrastructure" in the West Bank. Hamas severs its ties with Iran. Funds and humanitarian equipment continues to flow into Gaza only via the PA. There was no immediate reaction from the PA to Mr Greenblatt's statement, but a spokesman for President Mahmoud Abbas said Israel's conditions would "not change the official Palestinian position to move forward with reconciliation efforts".
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 18 Oct '17  17:57 : 0 recs

Britain can be proud of helping to create Israel
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 18 Oct '17  17:54 : 0 recs

The defeat of Isis is not enough to save Raqqa
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 17 Oct '17  16:14 : 0 recs

A
merican-backed coalition forces have launched their final assault on Isil militants based in the city of Raqqa. While the troops are certain to encounter pockets of fierce resistance from jihadists prepared to fight to the last, the self-styled caliphate that established itself in war-torn Syria some three years ago is close to collapse. Its impending  end should be a cause of celebration, and yet  its baleful influence will be apparent for years  to come.
 
Thousands of militant Islamists travelled to Raqqa, and while many were killed others have returned to their home countries where they remain a long-term threat to security. An estimated 300 British jihadists have come back to the UK after a spell in the so-called Islamic State and will have to be kept under surveillance. 

But even if the efforts to establish an Islamist state have been thwarted, the ideology that underpins ...

The Telegraph - The Islamic State may fall soon. But peace is a long way off
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 16 Oct '17  23:23 : 0 recs : edited 3 times : last edit 16 Oct '17  23:27

Good morning to everyone reading 'Serious Topics', 'The Third' and all other social media websites online. I trust that all is well with all of you this Tuesday morning. 'The Times' leads today with some editorial comment on talk not tanks.

"Three weeks ago Iraq’s Kurds threw down a gauntlet to the government in Baghdad in the form of a referendum in which more than 90 per cent of participating voters demanded independence. Baghdad responded late on Sunday night with Humvees, armoured personnel carriers and tanks. For the first time since 2014 the Iraqi flag was flying over the strategic oil city of Kirkuk today, with no Kurdish flag alongside it. The Iraqi forces were welcomed by much of Kirkuk’s civilian population but there are reports of fighting outside the city and barricades within it.

Mere weeks after battling on the same side against Isis, the Iraqi army and Iraqi Kurdish fighters are thus squaring off for what could degenerate into another civil war. Iraq’s Kurdish… "


The London 'Times' thunders that force will never settle the status of Iraqi Kurdistan! What do you reckon, legendary babe, prudence?
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 16 Oct '17  05:22 : 0 recs : edited 1 time : last edit 16 Oct '17  05:25

I ran; you walked; we stood!
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 16 Oct '17  05:22 : 0 recs : edited 4 times : last edit 16 Oct '17  05:27

Good morning to you all! I trust that all is well with all of you this Friday morning. The European Union (EU) has enlarged greatly over the past half century, and faces many issues. Porn' asks us all to use this particular thread, topic or forum to discuss any factors related to the EU's health, sense of identity, economics and politics.

The only successful integration of Europe was the conversion of Europe to Christianity, which took over a thousand years during the Middle East, and left Islam confined to the Balkans and Andalucia! It could be argued that the concepts of Christendom and Europe are interchangeable! As for the future, churches lie empty and people have lost their faith. O ye of little faith! So long as the roots are not severed, all is well and all will be well across the Continent of Europe, Slightly Optimistic!

The growth of Christendom decisively affected the character of European society and culture, legendary babe, prudence, and thereby, the civilisation of the whole world. This explains why the coming of Christianity to Europe is worth examining further, MingToo, and in far greater detail!  Do you go to church, Gorgeous George Sore Ass?  How about you, Warren BuffetCar?  Are you religious, and if so, in what sense, zorro?

Things tend to change, much more, and much more quickly, than we appreciate!  At the same time, things tend to change much less, and far more slowly, than we are aware of.  Innovation and inertia tend to be exemplified in any specific historical situation, Stephen Saines.  So for good or ill, Motoko Ike'e, we shall always find what happens next somewhat surprising! 'The Independent' leads with some editorial comment that if the Iran deal falls, the world would be a more dangerous place.

"If the Iran deal falls, the world would be a more dangerous place. President Trump has sent the Iran anti-nuclear agreement back to Congress, which now has 60 days to decide whether to renew it. Donald Trump’s motive for refusing to certify the Iran anti-nuclear agreement was as transparent as glass. He had already certified it twice, and nothing has changed except that his opinion-poll ratings have resumed their downward drift after September’s respite. Some of his supporters are beginning to realise he is all hat and no cattle, so he felt the need for a costless gesture. 

He hasn’t started building the wall, now downgraded to the “renovation of fences”, across the US southern border. He hasn’t scrapped Obamacare – although this week he did what he could to sabotage it for some poorer Americans. So it was time to go back one of the few things he can do, which is, as David Usborne writes, pulling the US out of international agreements. 

Fortunately, most of this is puff and bluster. It was the same story with President Trump’s repudiation of the Paris climate-change agreement. This was, of course, bad news because it removed the symbolic power of the US President’s bully pulpit from the complex task of implementing the deal. But it was less bad than it appeared, because President Trump was only giving the required three years’ notice of the US’s intention to withdraw – something that will not actually happen, if at all, until near the end of his term in the White House.

In the case of the Iran deal, President Trump has not ended it. Indeed, he has no authority to do so. He has sent it back to Congress, which now has 60 days to decide whether to renew it. It has no good grounds for terminating the deal. Even President Trump could say only that Iran had violated the “spirit” of the agreement secured by his predecessor, Barack Obama, in 2015. 

He knows full well that the UN’s International Atomic Energy Agency, the body charged with monitoring the agreement, has found no violations. Of course, Iran continues to sponsor some of the most unsavoury forces in the Middle East and its anti-American rhetoric is a constant provocation, but the deal is intended to curtail its ambition to acquire nuclear weapons and there is nothing to suggest it is not working. 

Trump accuses Tehran of spreading ‘chaos around the globe’. That is why President Trump was urged by all interested parties, including the UK Government, not to decertify the agreement, but all that has done is to turbo-charge the boost he gains from his electoral base by doing so.
 
Unfortunately, sending the Iran deal back to Congress may not be cost-free. Mr Obama never submitted the deal to Congress to be ratified as a treaty, knowing that the votes were not there – reflecting the history of attacks on Americans by Iran or its proxies over decades. It must be hoped that some compromise will emerge, preferably one which absolves President Trump of the obligation to certify the agreement every 90 days. 

However, we should be aware that if the Iran deal falls, it is likely to be replaced by a policy of confrontation and aggressive rhetoric similar to that applied by President Trump to North Korea. That would be a worrying outcome for the world. Let us hope that calm voices in Congress prevail.

The Iran deal won't fall because it's not a bilateral deal. The US can go and please themselves knowing that the EU and the UN are not with them on this. The biggest danger will be if governments reach the conclusion that there's no point negotiating with the US  because the deal can be undone, materially, with the strike of a lunatic's pen.

World security  pays for the consequence. The Iranian Revolutionary Guards and Hezbollah when fighting terrorists don't spare terrorists sponsored by US. It is US that sponsor some of the most unsavoury forces in the Middle East.

The US is busy trying to stop dictators in other countries yet cant stop their own dictator (Trump) sitting in their backyard leading them to WWIII and economic disaster one tweet at a time. Really baffles everyone. 

The world would be a lot safer and better place if The U.S. stopped it's endless attacks on other countries. Attacking Iran could be a step too far, and very likely lead to ww3. The people behind the scenes who control the politicians need to be exposed before it's too bloody late."


'The Independent' takes the stance that President has sent the anti-nuclear legislation back to Congress. Congress now has sixty days in which to decide whether to renew this particular legislation!
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 15 Oct '17  06:56 : 0 recs : edited 1 time : last edit 15 Oct '17  06:56

Good morning to you all! I trust that all is well with all of you this Friday morning. The European Union (EU) has enlarged greatly over the past half century, and faces many issues. Porn' asks us all to use this particular thread, topic or forum to discuss any factors related to the EU's health, sense of identity, economics and politics.

The only successful integration of Europe was the conversion of Europe to Christianity, which took over a thousand years during the Middle East, and left Islam confined to the Balkans and Andalucia! It could be argued that the concepts of Christendom and Europe are interchangeable! As for the future, churches lie empty and people have lost their faith. O ye of little faith! So long as the roots are not severed, all is well and all will be well across the Continent of Europe, Slightly Optimistic!

The growth of Christendom decisively affected the character of European society and culture, legendary babe, prudence, and thereby, the civilisation of the whole world. This explains why the coming of Christianity to Europe is worth examining further, MingToo, and in far greater detail!  Do you go to church, Gorgeous George Sore Ass?  How about you, Warren BuffetCar?  Are you religious, and if so, in what sense, zorro?

Things tend to change, much more, and much more quickly, than we appreciate!  At the same time, things tend to change much less, and far more slowly, than we are aware of.  Innovation and inertia tend to be exemplified in any specific historical situation, Stephen Saines.  So for good or ill, Motoko Ike'e, we shall always find what happens next somewhat surprising! 'The Sunday Telegraph' leads with some editorial comment that Trump was right to pull out of Unesco and the Iran deal.

"Donald Trump has made many mistakes since taking office, but he has taken some sensible decisions in the past few days and been criticised inaccurately for them. For example, pulling out of Unesco, the United Nations’ educational, scientific and cultural organisation, was painted by critics as reckless, but it was both logical and just.

Ronald Reagan did the same in 1984; George W Bush rejoined in 2002. It was Barack Obama who cut off funding six years ago after Unesco welcomed Palestine into its ranks. It became anti-Semitic to the point that America could not in all good conscience remain a member.

Mr Trump brings a new realism in foreign affairs. Take the Iran nuclear deal. Again, he stands accused of acting on a whim. But the deal that was struck under Obama was part of a deeply flawed strategy based on short-term wins at the cost of long-term security. Much like the East/West détente... "
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 15 Oct '17  02:34 : 0 recs : edited 1 time : last edit 15 Oct '17  02:35

Donald Trump’s motive for refusing to certify the Iran anti-nuclear agreement was as transparent as glass. He had already certified it twice, and nothing has changed except that his opinion-poll ratings have resumed their downward drift after September’s respite. Some of his supporters are beginning to realise he is all hat and no cattle, so he felt the need for a costless gesture. 

He hasn’t started building the wall, now downgraded to the “renovation of fences”, across the US southern border. He hasn’t scrapped Obamacare – although this week he did what he could to sabotage it for some poorer Americans. So it was time to go back one of the few things he can do, which is, as David Usborne writes, pulling the US out of international agreements. 

Fortunately, most of this is puff and bluster. It was the same story with President Trump’s repudiation of the Paris climate-change agreement. This was, of course, bad news because it removed the symbolic power of the US President’s bully pulpit from the complex task of implementing the deal. But it was less bad than it appeared, because President Trump was only giving the required three years’ notice of the US’s intention to withdraw – something that will not actually happen, if at all, until near the end of his term in the White House.

EU condemns Donald Trump’s decision to decertify Iran nuclear deal. In the case of the Iran deal, President Trump has not ended it. Indeed, he has no authority to do so. He has sent it back to Congress, which now has 60 days to decide whether to renew it. It has no good grounds for terminating the deal. Even President Trump could say only that Iran had violated the “spirit” of the agreement secured by his predecessor, Barack Obama, in 2015. 

He knows full well that the UN’s International Atomic Energy Agency, the body charged with monitoring the agreement, has found no violations. Of course, Iran continues to sponsor some of the most unsavoury forces in the Middle East and its anti-American rhetoric is a constant provocation, but the deal is intended to curtail its ambition to acquire nuclear weapons and there is nothing to suggest it is not working. 

Trump accuses Tehran of spreading ‘chaos around the globe’. That is why President Trump was urged by all interested parties, including the UK Government, not to decertify the agreement, but all that has done is to turbo-charge the boost he gains from his electoral base by doing so. 

Unfortunately, sending the Iran deal back to Congress may not be cost-free. Mr Obama never submitted the deal to Congress to be ratified as a treaty, knowing that the votes were not there – reflecting the history of attacks on Americans by Iran or its proxies over decades. It must be hoped that some compromise will emerge, preferably one which absolves President Trump of the obligation to certify the agreement every 90 days. 

However, we should be aware that if the Iran deal falls, it is likely to be replaced by a policy of confrontation and aggressive rhetoric similar to that applied by President Trump to North Korea. That would be a worrying outcome for the world. Let us hope that calm voices in Congress prevail.

The Independent - If the Iran deal falls, the world would be a more dangerous place = President Trump has sent the Iran anti-nuclear agreement back to Congress, which now has 60 days to decide whether to renew it
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 14 Oct '17  02:37 : 0 recs

Donald Trump has taken a wild swing at his predecessor’s key foreign policy legacy, the milestone 2015 Iran nuclear accord. By refusing to “certify” Iran’s compliance, Mr Trump has set events on an unpredictable course. He had until 15 October to “certify” the deal’s implementation. He had done so twice already since coming to office. But this time, though nothing substantial has changed, he’s noisily refused. Does this matter? He cannot, alone, pull the US out of this deal but he has raised the spectre that this might happen “at any time”. He wants measures taken to counter Iran’s “destabilising actions”, and to “deny all paths to a nuclear weapon”, though without much clarity as to what this might entail. None of this contradicts the agreement formally, but it will all weaken it. Congress now has 60 days in which to decide whether to vote to reimpose sanctions whose lifting was a essential part of the quid pro quo contained in the agreement. Even if that happens, European allies who are party to the nuclear deal, along with Russia and China, have all clearly indicated they will act to preserve it.

The 2015 deal offered the best possible assurances that Iran’s nuclear military activities would be contained for roughly 10 years. It imposed strict international inspections, and provided strong incentives through sanctions relief. By defusing the nuclear crisis, it helped consolidate the more pragmatic or moderate factions within Iran’s power structures. It has deprived Israel’s leader of a pretext to threaten Iran with military strikes. It has helped to prevent the arms race in the Middle East from taking on entirely new proportions.

Now, all these positive outcomes may start to unravel. Iran has promised a “crushing” response if its Revolutionary Guards are targeted by US sanctions – something Mr Trump has now called for. His provocation could lead to Iran pulling out of the nuclear accord – which may well be his tactical goal.

The emerging diplomatic picture is unprecedented: a US president finds himself at odds not only with his own close advisers, but with all the key international players involved in a major crisis over international security – including close European allies. All still support the nuclear deal with Iran. “America First” has become “America alone” at the moment when it is clear that America, alone, has far less power than it still supposes.

Mr Trump’s decision is the culmination of years of rhetoric lambasting the Iran deal as “the worst ever”. He has been encouraged by Benjamin Netanyahu, the Israeli prime minister. No one else believes that Iran has violated the terms of the deal. Even Mr
Trump now claims only that Iran has violated the “spirit” of the accord. The regular assessments provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN-related body missioned with monitoring Iran’s activities, have found no violations. Iran’s behaviour in the region may well be criticised, but the 2015 accord had nothing to do with the actions of Iranian-controlled armed groups in Syria, Iraq or Yemen, nor with its support to Hamas and Hezbollah. The agreement was solely focused on curtailing the regime’s uranium enrichment programme and removing its ability to build a nuclear weapon within a relatively short period if it took the decision to do so.

There is no need to panic. Just as the agreement has its limits, so does Mr Trump’s angry rhetoric demonstrate his. Whether or not he has recognised reality himself, or been led carefully round it by his handlers, he has not quite taken any action which Iran would find completely unacceptable. He threatens and blusters, but the agreement will stand unless Congress decides to break it. This is where all the pettiness of his character works for the good. Because he is interested only in victory, he may fail entirely to notice that he has backed down from some of his own rhetoric. But Congress must now refuse to impose sanctions that would definitively break the deal.

The Guardian - The Guardian view on decertifying the Iran deal: full of sound and fury - Trump rampages in rhetoric. But for all his posturing, the Iran deal still stands – just
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 14 Oct '17  01:06 : 0 recs

Theresa May and other European leaders have been pleading with President Trump not to scrap the nuclear deal with Tehran. It is fortunate that the prime minister made use of the phone rather than email to make her case since it now emerges that Iran has been systematically hacking the communications of the Houses of Parliament.

This intrusion, described in Whitehall as a “brute force” attack, should not be entirely surprising since Iran has in the past few years emerged as one of the world’s leading cyber- aggressors. It remains nonetheless an extraordinary attempt to gatecrash the workings of a democratic state. Iran should be left in no doubt that Britain will use its own considerable cyber- arsenal to disrupt Iranian institutions if this kind thing continues.

The Times - Hacking the House - The West should retaliate against aggressive use of cyberweapons by Iran
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 14 Oct '17  00:32 : 0 recs

Good morning to you all! The FT leads this weekend with some editorial comment on Donald Trump’s irresponsible approach to Iran. The salmon pink newspaper takes the stance that the president is withdrawing the US from a responsible global role.
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 14 Oct '17  00:32 : 0 recs : edited 1 time : last edit 14 Oct '17  00:33

I ran; you walked!
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 11 Oct '17  23:20 : 0 recs : edited 2 times : last edit 11 Oct '17  23:22

In both Europe and the Middle East, Turkey is at war with Kurdish separatists in its southeastern corner, and would prefer that the rest of the world know nothing about it. To this end President Erdogan has authorised a campaign of intimidation against journalists doing no more than their jobs. The latest victim of this campaign is Ayla Albarak, a Wall Street Journal reporter convicted of “distributing terrorist propaganda” and sentenced to more than two years in jail. Ms Albarak’s “crime” was to report on a resumption of hostilities that have killed at least 3,000 people since 2015. In a sense she is lucky. She was convicted in absentia and is living in America pending an appeal against her sentence.

Meanwhile, in his negotiations with Tehran, Donald Trump, author of The Art of the Deal, wants to unravel the nuclear understanding with Tehran, toughen its terms and if all else fails scrap it entirely. That prospect alarms Britain and other European Union signatories not only because it would remove any formal constraints on Iran’s development of a nuclear bomb but also because of the large wedge that would be driven into the transatlantic alliance. Theresa May was surely right, then, to express her worries to the American president as she did on Tuesday. It seems doubtful that Mr Trump will act on her plea, one of many that have come this week from the likes of France, Germany and cabinet members in his own administration.

The Times - Trumping Tehran: Britain and Europe must work with the US to block Iran’s race for regional mastery
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 11 Oct '17  08:34 : 0 recs

Good morning to everyone living in the Middle East and beyond! We trust that all is well with all of you this morning! More than five million Iraqis have been displaced since so-called Islamic State (IS) took over large swathes of territory in 2014, the UN says. Lise Grande, the UN humanitarian co-ordinator for Iraq, said 5.4 million civilians had fled their homes over the past three years. The latest figures come in the wake of the recapture of the town of Hawija - IS last major urban stronghold in Iraq. IS now hold only a stretch of territory on Iraq's border with Syria. In recent months, Iraqi security forces and allied militia have much of the territory, including Mosul. But clashes between government forces and IS militants have forced hundreds of thousands of civilians to flee. Mosul faces struggles with reconstruction and reconciliation. Over half a million civilians fled from Mosul when it was overrun by the militants, and a further 800,000 fled during the months-long Iraqi operation to recapture it.

More recently, thousands of civilians fled the clashes as government forces recaptured Hawija. Ms Grande said the UN was "deeply worried" for the wellbeing of those who have been displaced. "Hundreds of thousands of people, including tens of thousands of very young children, have been exposed to extreme danger, stress, and trauma and will require years of specialised support and care," she said in a statement. At their height, the jihadists controlled large parts of central and northern Iraq, including its second city, Mosul. In recent months, Iraqi security forces and allied militia have retaken much of the territory, including Mosul. But clashes between government forces and IS militants have forced hundreds of thousands of civilians to flee. Mosul faces struggles with reconstruction and reconciliation. Over half a million civilians fled from Mosul when it was overrun by the militants, and a further 800,000 fled during the months-long Iraqi operation to recapture it. More recently, thousands of civilians fled the clashes as government forces recaptured Hawija. Ms Grande said the UN was "deeply worried" for the wellbeing of those who have been displaced. "Hundreds of thousands of people, including tens of thousands of very young children, have been exposed to extreme danger, stress, and trauma and will require years of specialised support and care," she said in a statement.
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 10 Oct '17  00:43 : 0 recs

Good morning to everyone reading 'Serious Topics', 'The Third' and other social media online tonight. I trust that all is well with all of you this October. 'The Financial Times' leads tomorrow with some editorial comment that the Visa dispute is another sign of Turkey’s drift.

The salmon pink newspaper takes the view that the longstanding Washington-Ankara alliance shows severe strain amid tit-for-tat row!
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 09 Oct '17  03:32 : 0 recs

Have you travelled across the deserts of the Middle East, from the Indian Ocean and Arabia to the mountains of central Asia?
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 08 Oct '17  13:24 : 0 recs

The Redeemer redeems!
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 07 Oct '17  07:54 : 0 recs

How about Babylon, one of the cradles of human civilisation? The Hanging Gardens might be good in the desert heat!
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.
little c
 07 Oct '17  07:54 : 0 recs

How about Babylon, one of the cradles of human civilisation? The Hanging Gardens might be good in the desert heat!
 You must either register or login to post to Serious Topics.



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  
Showing posts 1 to 20 of 75794
 


© Copyright 2017